Learning Path

Using, Creating and Modifying Resources

Using, Creating and Modifying Resources

Learning Pathway: Using, Creating and Modifying Resources

Effective teaching relies on high quality resources and learning materials. The Open Educational Resources movement argues for opening access to educational resources and for the free sharing and use of these. The movement has grown in recent years. If you would like to know more about this concept, this pathway will introduce you to free licences and Open Education Resources. 

1

Creative Commons


Topic: Understanding and using creative commons    Time: 5 min

Understanding Open Licences

Open licences provide permission to freely use copyrighted works under the terms and conditions set by the licence.

Creative Commons

Creative Commons licences are the most commonly used licences for sharing open educational resources. Creative Commons is a US based non-profit organization and international network whose aim is to overcome legal obstacles to the sharing of knowledge and creativity to address the world’s pressing challenges.

Creative Commons licences

Creative Commons provides a range of open licences that provide a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; while ensuring proper attribution; and allowing others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works.

All Creative Commons licences are:

  • Accompanied by a human-readable summary and a licence deed.
  • Applicable worldwide.
  • Backwards compatible – current versions of the licences are compatible with earlier versions.
  • Last for the duration of the copyright of the work.
  • Non-exclusive – copyright holders have the right to share their work under multiple licences.
  • Irrevocable – once a work has been published under a CC license, licensees may continue using it according to the license terms for the duration of applicable copyright and similar rights. Copyright holders may stop distributing their work under the CC license at any time, but anyone who has access to a copy of the material may continue to use and redistribute it under the CC license terms.

Creative Commons licences range from permissive (CC BY) to restrictive (CC BY-NC-ND).

Types of CC license
Types of CC license, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://foter.com/blog/how-to-attribute-creative-commons-photos/

The terms of the licence will dictate how you can use the resources.  For an overview of the different Creative Commons licences see Choosing a Creative Commons Licence (link) and for information about licence restrictions please visit How to use OERs (link)

Public domain and CC0

Public domain resources are no longer under protection, e.g. copyright has expired, or have been actively dedicated to the public for free use, e.g. using the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) designation. 

REFERENCES + LICENSE: The text “understanding open licences” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/understanding-open-licences/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

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Topic: Understanding and using creative commons    Time: 10 min

Choosing a Creative Commons Licence

Creative Commons licences provide a simple and standardised way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works while ensuring proper attribution and allowing others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works. When choosing a Creative Commons licence, you should think carefully about how you want your resource to be used as different licences provide different permissions.

Table which describes the different CC-licenses
Creative Commons Licenses, Foter.com, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://foter.com/blog/how-to-attribute-creative-commons-photos/

If you are considering using a Non-Commercial licence, which will prevent anyone from using your resource for commercial purposes, you may find that applying a Share-Alike licence will meet your needs by ensuring that any new work incorporating yours must also be made freely available under the same licence for others to use and re-mix.

If you are considering using a No-Derivatives licence, it is important to be aware that this will significantly limit how your resource can be reused, as this licence prevents the resources from being altered in any way.  There may be good reasons for choosing this licence, e.g. if the content of your resource could potentially become misleading if it was changed in any way, however we recommend that you think carefully before choosing this licence.

Creative Commons Licence Types

Here is an explanation of what each licence allows, alongside the short hand text and logo images used to mark specific Creative Commons licences.

Creative Commons – Attribution – CC BY

Creative Commons License CC-BY
Creative Commons License CC-BY

A CC BY, or Attribution licence, allows anyone to re-mix, re-use and re-share the work, as long as attribution is provided to the creator.

Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike – CC BY-SA

Creative Commons License CC-BY-SA
Creative Commons License CC-BY-SA

A CC BY-SA, or Share Alike licence, allows anyone to re-mix, re-use, and re-share, so long as attribution is provided to the creator and any new work is re-shared freely under the same licence. This licence permits commercial use.

Creative Commons – Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike – CC BY-NC-SA

Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC-SA
Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC-SA

The CC BY-NC-SA licence allows the work to be re-mixed, re-used, and re-shared so long as  attribution is provided to the creator, the work is not used for commercial purposes, and any new work is re-shared freely under the same licence.

Creative Commons – Attribution Non Commercial – CC BY-NC

Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC
Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC

The CC BY-NC, or Non Commercial licence, allows the work to be re-used and remixed, and re-shared, as long as attribution is provided to the creator and the work is not used for commercial purposes.

Creative Commons – Attribution No Derivatives – CC BY-ND

Creative Commons License CC-BY-ND
Creative Commons License CC-BY-ND

A CC BY-ND, or Non-Derivative licence, allows anyone to re-use and re-share the work, as long as credit is provided to the creator, and no changes are made to the original work. This licence permits commercial use.

Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives – CC BY-NC-ND

Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC-ND
Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC-ND

The CC BY-NC-ND license allows the work to be re-used and re-shared, so long as attribution is provided to the creator, the work is not used for commercial purposes, and no changes are made to the original work.

Creative Commons – Zero / CC0

Creative Commons License Zero / CC0
Creative Commons License Zero / CC0

CC0 is a public dedication tool that means the rights holder has waived all copyright protection rights and placed the work in the public domain. This means the resource can be used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, without the need for attribution.

REFERENCES + LICENSE: The text “Choosing a Creative Commons Licence for your resource“ by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/choosing-a-creative-commons-licence-for-your-resource/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

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Topic: Understanding and using creative commons    Time: 5 min

Combining Creative Commons licensed Resources

Different licences dictate how you can use and combine resources. If you plan to incorporate an existing Creative Commons licensed resource into a new resource you are creating, you must ensure that you adhere to the licence restrictions. This chart illustrates which licences can be combined.

CC Licence Compatibility
CC Licence Compatibility, CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons, https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Wiki/cc_license_compatibility
REFERENCES + LICENSE: The text “Combining Creative Commons licensed Resources” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/how-to-use-oers/, is licenced under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

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2

Open Educational Resources (OER)


Topic: Being able to find, use and publish OERs for educational purposes.    Time: 5 min

Understanding Open Educational Resources (OER)

What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? Why should teachers pay attention to them? By following the link, you can access a short introduction to the topic of Open Educational Resources.

What are open educational resources (OER)?

Open educational resources (OER) are digital resources that are used in the context of teaching and learning (e.g. course material, images, video, multimedia resources, assessment items, etc.), which have been released by the copyright holder under an open licence (e.g. Creative Commons) permitting their use or re-purposing (re-use, revision, remixing, redistribution) by others.

REFERENCES + LICENSE: The text “What are open educational resources (OER)?” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/what-are-open-educational-resources-oer/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

Why you, as an educator, should get involved with OER

Creation of OER has big benefits to individuals, educational institutions and society as a whole. If you are an educator it makes sense to create and use OER.

In Higher or Tertiary education, and for researchers, OER is not just about access to materials, but about making it possible (usually via open access models) to share materials more easily and creating platforms for more work to become visible (and therefore attract funding).

Why re-invent the wheel?

Teachers are responsible for creating great learning experiences, not (necessarily) for creating all the resources needed for this themselves. Reusing existing OER frees up time that can be spent on other aspects of the teaching and learning process. Their use can help you expand your range of teaching materials.

Raising your profile

Getting your materials out there as an educator can both help raise your profile and allow your resources to be improved by other users. You will improve your profile and impact, potentially collecting kudos/evidence towards promotion.

Take your resources with you

By making your teaching resources open you are also allowing yourself to take these materials with you when you move from one institution to another.

Improving your teaching

Creating OER will improve your practice by encouraging you to reflect. You will find people interested in and teaching/learning the same areas as you. Use and creation of OER facilitates looking outside your immediate environment and getting broader and different views on topic areas. You will learn new stuff which will reinvigorate your teaching.

REFERENCES + LICENSE: The text “Why you should get involved with (using) OER (as an educator)?”, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/about/, was re-mixed from The Open Education Handbook licensed under a CC BY 3.0

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Topic: Being able to find, use and publish OERs for educational purposes.    Time: 10 min

Creating and Sharing OER

Open Educational Resources enable teachers to share knowledge globally and for it to be re-purposed, so they can refer to ready-made resources when planning their teaching. Follow the link for a demonstration of how OERs can be made publicly available.

What to consider when creating an OER?

If you are creating open educational resources, or if you wish to apply a Creative Commons licence to existing resources, please consider the following points.

  1. Do you have permission to use and share any third party content included in the resource? This means any content you do not own the copyright of, e.g. an image or diagram created by someone else.
  2. Have you included attribution and license information for all third party content you include in the resource? If you include any Creative Commons licensed content created by a third party, you must include attribution to the creator and the licence information.  We also recommend that you provide attribution to any public domain content that you use.
  3. Are you able to provide alternative formats for those who need them? This might include people who find certain resources hard to access because of visual impairment, dyslexia, mental health conditions or other special requirements.
  4. If your resource includes images, have they been alt tagged with descriptions?  Alt tags help people who use screen readers to access online content.
  5. If you are creating video resources, have you included subtitles? Media Hopper Create provides automated subtitling.
  6. Have you added a Creative Commons licence?  Make sure you add a Creative Commons licence to your resource.  If your resource includes third party open licensed content, you must make sure that you use a compatible open licence.

Reusability

If you want people to be able to re-purpose and re-use your open educational resources, please consider making them available in an easily customisable format so that users can adapt them to meet the needs of their own learners.

Choosing a Creative Commons Licence for your resource

Creative Commons licenses provide a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; while ensuring proper attribution; and allowing others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works.

When you are choosing a Creative Commons licence, it is important to think carefully about how you want your resource to be used, as different licences provide different permissions.

If you are considering using a Non-Commercial licence, which will prevent anyone from using your resource for commercial purposes, you may find that applying a Share-Alike licence will meet your needs by ensuring that any new work incorporating yours must also be made freely available under the same licence for others to use and re-mix.

If you are considering using a No-Derivatives licence, it is important to be aware that this will significantly limit how your resource can be reused, as this licence prevents the resources from being altered in any way.  There may be good reasons for choosing this licence, e.g. if the content of your resource could potentially become misleading if it was changed in any way, however we recommend that you think carefully before choosing this licence.

Adding a Creative Commons Licence to your resource

It’s very easy to apply a Creative Commons licence to your work.  The simplest way is to write the licence as a string of text, e.g.

© J. Smith, University of Edinburgh, 2020, CC BY-SA.

If you use the Creative Commons Licence Chooser it will allow you to copy an HTML embed code which will enable you to add your licence to any web page. This code includes machine readable metadata that allows software and applications to understand which licence you’ve applied to your work.

Creative Commons License CC-BY-SA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

If your resource contains third party content that has also been released under open licence you may want to add an additional clause to your licence statement.  Remember to always attribute any third party content that you use!

© J. Smith, University of Edinburgh, 2020, CC BY-SA, unless otherwise indicated.

Where possible, we recommend that your embed attribution and licence information in your resources, e.g. in a slide at the end of a video, rather than adding it to the page your resource is embedded in.  This will help to ensure the licence information doesn’t get lost when the resource is reused.

Where to share your open educational resources

Written and interactive digital teaching resources should be published in an appropriate repository or public-access website in order to maximise discovery and use by others. Where OERs have been created as part of an externally funded activity, any storage and/or repository locations mandated as a condition of the funding should be used.

You are encouraged to share your Creative Commons licensed resources anywhere that they can be found by others.

REFERENCES + LICENSES: The text “What to consider when creating an OER” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/what-to-consider-when-creating-an-oer/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

The text “Choosing a Creative Commons Licence for your resource” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/choosing-a-creative-commons-licence-for-your-resource/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

The text “Adding a Creative Commons Licence to your resource” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/adding-a-creative-commons-licence-to-your-resource/,  is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

The text “Where to share your open educational resources” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/where-to-share-your-open-educational-resources/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened and rephrased by SEA-EU.

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Topic: Being able to find, use and publish OERs for educational purposes.    Time: 10 min

How to Use OER

With Open Educational Resources, teachers can both share knowledge globally so that it can be re-purposed and also access ready-made resources for use in their own teaching. Follow the link to learn more about how to access and re-use OERs.

Re-using and Re-purposing OERs

Open educational resources are digital resources used in the context of teaching and learning that have been released under an open licence permitting their use and re-purposing by others.

The real value of open educational resources is that they can be adapted, customised, and re-contextualised to meet the specific needs of learners.  This might involve translating a resource, changing examples to a local context, using only part of a resource, or combining a resource with other materials.  There are many different ways you can re-use and re-purpose OERs.  However, it is important that you comply with the licence restrictions of any open educational resources you use, as outlined below.

Providing attribution

In order to use a Creative Commons licensed open educational resource you must provide attribution to the creator.  Good attribution includes the following information:

Title: The title of the resource.

Creator: The name of the creator or copyright holder of the resource.

Licence: The licence of the resource.

Source: A link to the original source of the resource.

Creative Commons licence restrictions

Some restrictions to be aware of when using open educational resources

You must always Attribute the creator of a resource.

NonCommercial licences restrict the use of a work to non-commercial use only.  When using NC licensed content you should consider how the work will be used, not the nature of the organisation using it. For example, commercial organisations can legitimately use NC licensed content for not for profit purposes. 

You must not make any changes to works licensed No Derivatives. This includes, but is not limited to, adding subtitles, making translations or cropping images.  This means that while CC BY-ND resources can be re-used, they can not be adapted, edited, or re-purposed.

You must share derivatives of ShareAlike licensed works under the same licence.

Using Public Domain resources

If you are using a public domain resource, you do not need to provide attribution, however it is useful to mark it as a public domain resource and include a link to the original source so other users will know that they can also re-use it.

Where to find OERs

There are many different repositories and websites where you can easily find open education resources.

Open Repositories

Open repositories allow anyone to upload and download learning resources, often in multiple formats, for reuse and remixing. Theses repositories provide a wide variety of open educational resources, which are often accompanied by information about educational levels, aims and objective, and how resources can be used.

Specialised Content Sites

Additionally there are many generic online services that host specific media formats. Some you may be familiar with include Flickr, Soundcloud, and YouTube.  Most of these sites provide advanced search functionality to enable you to find Creative Commons licensed resources that can be used in education.

Finding OERs using search services

There are a number of search services that allow you quickly and easily find a wide range of open educational resources and open licensed content.

Google

Google allows you to filter your search results in order to find Creative Commons licensed images.

To do this, go to Google Image search https://www.google.co.uk/imghp and enter your search term. Click the Tools option to bring up an additional menu bar that enables you to  filter your search results by size, colour, usage rights, type and time.

Select  ‘Usage rights’ to choose from a drop down menu with the following options:

  • Not filtered by license
  • Labeled for reuse with modification
  • Labeled for reuse
  • Labelled for noncommercial reuse with modification
  • Labeled for non-commercial reuse

 Selecting “Labeled for reuse” will return all Creative Commons licensed images.

Note: Before reusing content, check the licence details on the source page and check the exact terms of reuse. For example, the licence might require that you give credit to the image creator when you use the image or have additional requests that Google is unable to pick up in a general search.

Reverse Image Search

You can use the Google Chrome browser to search for the source of an image. Right click the image and select “Search Google for image”. This should help you to find the original source of an image and any associated licence information.  

Creative Commons Search

Creative Commons have their own CC Search service that allows you to search for open licensed and public domain images from a wide range of sources including Wikimedia Commons, Flickr, Smithsonian, Europeana, NASA, Rijksmuseum and more.

The service provides attribution and licence information to copy and share in three different formats.

There is also a CC Search browser extension for Chrome, Firefox and Opera which allows you to search for and filter CC licensed content.

Europeana

Europeana allows you to cross search thousands of European archives, libraries and museums to find cultural heritage content of all kinds.  Europeana’s advanced search facility has a number of filters including “Can I use this?” which enables you to find public domain and open licensed content.

REFERENCES + LICENSES: The text “How to use OERs” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/how-to-use-oers/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

The text “Where to find OERs” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/where-to-find-oers-2/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

The text “Finding OERs using search devices” by the Interactive Content Team, The University of Edinburgh, via https://open.ed.ac.uk/how-to-guides/finding-oers-using-search-services/, is licensed under CC BY 4.0, shortened by SEA-EU.

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Topic: Being able to find, use and publish OERs for educational purposes.    Time: 10 min

Planning an OER Project

Do you want to create your own OER or OER project? You can use this canvas to help you from idea collection to making a concrete plan. It responds to the following questions: what do teachers and others have to consider when planning an OER project? How do you proceed? The guide can be downloaded and printed.

License: The canvas „OER project" by Sandra Schön and Martin Ebner 2018, Originally developed in German for OERinfo – Informationsstelle OER (2017) - https://open-educational-resources.de/der-oer-canvas-teil-1/, translated by the authors with support of Alicia Bankhofer and Javiera Atenas, via http://education.okfn.org/handbooks/oer-canvas/, is licensed by CC BY.

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Topic: Being able to find, use and publish OERs for educational purposes.    Time: 75 min

Finding OER

There are many archives and databases containing collections of OERs that are available free of charge for use and adaptation. Teachers can both help each other and be helped by each other. Just follow the link to see an example of an OER collection.

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3

Online Courses and Blogs


Topic: Locating useful information for continuing professional development: e.g. how to create an online course    Time: 10 min

Create an Online Course

Creating a virtual course doesn't have to be difficult. You can achieve this by simply putting your lectures online. The MOOC-Maker canvas, which you can access by clicking on the link, helps you think in a structured way when preparing your online teaching. You can print the canvas out and use it as a template by filling in the spaces.

License: The canvas „MOOC-Maker Canvas" by Educational Technology - TU Graz, via https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345162321_MOOC_Maker_Canvas_English_Version, is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

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Topic: Locating useful information for continuing professional development: e.g. how to create an online course    Time: 120 min

Create and Publish Open Content

OpenLearn Create is an open educational platform where individuals and organisations can publish their open content and open courses and resources. It is Moodle-based and has tools for collaboration, reuse, and remixing. The site also contains guidance on how to develop your own online course.

https://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/

License: Except for third party materials and otherwise stated, content on the site is made available under Creative Commons licences. OpenLearn Create is powered by a number of software tools released under the GNU GPL.

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Topic: Discover how blogs are used to learn from each other's experiences and knowing where to find more information for teachers    Time: 10 min

#100daysToOffload Challenge

This Twitter challenge promotes blogging as an educational and reflective practice and aims to connect bloggers under the hashtag #100DaysToOffload. You can use it to find educational comments and also comment yourself. To participate, you might want to take a look at the guidelines (see below). If you want to find blogposts from other users you can use the hashtag on Twitter, Mastodon, WriteAs, and Facebook for your search or click on the link for an example.

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4

Create Different Resources


Topic: Giving a (online) presentation    Time: 15 min

How to Make an Educational Video

Videos can make learning material really accessible to students. The key to creating an entertaining and informative educational video is preparation and planning. Technical standards and certain rules must also be considered. Click on the link to read Columbia University's tips on developing educational videos, generating ideas, and advice on how to make your videos clear and memorable.

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Topic: Using podcasts in higher education    Time: 20 min

The Beginner’s Guide to Educational Podcasting

Podcasts are a fantastic way of presenting factual content in an entertaining and informative way. As they can be accessed anytime and anywhere, they're a great alternative to synchronous classes for students. The link below takes you to a starter guide for podcasters, giving you specific and practical advice on how to develop your own.

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Topic: Prepare an online lecture    Time: 5 min

How to Write an Engaging Script

The first step in creating a presentation is to write a script. It is important that this script is well written as it can also offer the students textual reinforcement of the lecture's content. In addition, a well written script helps the learner engage more actively with its contents. The following video offers practical tips that will help you improve your script writing skills.

License: not freely licensed

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